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Spermatophyta

Definition, Characteristics, and Classification of seed plants (Spermatophyta) Along example Completely - Plants that exist in this world many kinds andspecies. In plain view, plants can be divided into plants that produce seeds and plants that do not produce seeds. Seed plants arealso called spermatophyta which can be divided intoclosed seed plants( Angiosperms ) andopen seed plants( Gymnosperms ). Angiosperms itself is divided into plants into pieces one (monocots) and two dashed plants (dicots).

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The seed is a tool to preserve the relevant plant offspring. Seeds are usually produced by flowering plants. In addition to breeding, seeds are also a storage place for food reserves that are used by other organisms to meet their food needs.

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Definition of Spermatophyta

Spermatophyta is a group of plants that produce seeds, therefore they are also often called seed plants . Spermatophyta is kormophyta because it has true roots, stems and leaves. Spermatophyta can also produce compounds that are included in anthophyta. Spermatophyta habitats are usually on land, but some can be found floating in water areas (eg lotus).

Spermatophyta characteristic

Seed plants have more complex sporophyte generation than mosses and nails. Breeding tools are found in the organ of flowers (a collection of sporophils) or in the form of strobilus. Meanwhile, in spikes, sporophyll groups do not form flowers.

Male sex cells (gametes) are in pollen and female gametes are in the embryonic sac. The process of combining male gamete cells (sperm) and female gamete cells (egg cells) takes place through a pollen reed. Therefore, Spermatophyta is also called Siphonogama Embryophyta.

Seed plants can be clearly distinguished from the roots, stems and leaves.

Its body is composed of many cells or is multicellular in nature with a large or macroscopic body size and has a variety of heights.

Seed plants have a varied network of vessels and consist of phloem whose function is to bring food from the leaves to the whole body of the plant, and xylem which functions to transport water and minerals from the soil.

In general, seed plants (except parasitic plants) are autotrophic or can synthesize their own food through photosynthesis. Therefore, seed plants are photoautotrophic organisms.

Most seed plants have habitat on land such as mangoes, rambutans, and guavas. There are also seed plants that live floating on the water such as water hyacinth.

Seed plants reproduce asexually or sexually.

Spermatophyta Body Structure

Spermatophyta body structure as follows:

Root

There are roots in seed plants in the form of fibers and also in the form of tap roots. Cells that have differentiated into epidermis, cortex, and central cylinder in which there are xylem and phloem.

The stem

Seedlings can be either woody or watery stems. Stems in seed plants can be modified into stolons, rhizomes, and tubers. Stem cells differentiate into epidermis, cortex, and central cylinder (there are xylem and phloem).

Leaf

Leaf cells differentiate into epidermis and mesophils. Mesophiles are composed of a network of poles and sponges.

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Spermatophyta Seed Plant Reproduction

Generative (sexual) spermatophyta reproductive processes are carried out by forming seeds that begin with gamete formation (gametogenesis), then pollination (pollination), then fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization) which will produce embryos.

Vegetative (asexual) development is carried out with vegetative organs such as shoots, rhizoa, or solons.

Reproduction in angiosperms includes:

Generative Reproduction

In its life cycle there are several stages, including:

Gametogenesis, namely the formation of gametes (sex cells). Occur in the flower section.

Pollination (Pollination), ie the fall / adherence of pollen to the pistil's head (to Angiosperms) or adhering to pollen on the ovaries (Gymnosperms).

Type of Pollination:

Based on pollen origin

Autogamy (self-pollination) is when pollen comes from the same flower (one flower). If the flowers haven't bloomed, it's called kleistogamy.

Geitonogami (pollinating neighbors) if pollen comes from other flowers but is still one individual.

Alogamy (xerogamy) or cross pollination, that is when pollen comes from other individuals but is still in one type.

Bastar (hibridogami), which is when pollen comes from another type.

Based on factors that help:

Anemogamy, which is pollination with the help of wind. Characteristics of flowers: dried pollen, soft, many, do not have a flower crown.

Hydrogamy, which is pollination with the help of water.

Zoidiogamy, namely pollination with the help of animals.

Chiropterogamy, which is pollination with the help of bats. Feature: flowers that bloom at night.

Entomogamy, which is pollination with the help of insects. Feature: flowers that produce nectar / pollen / honey.

Ornitogamy, which is pollination with the help of birds.

Malakogami, namely pollination with the help of snails (molluscs).

Anthropogamy, namely pollination with human assistance.

Feature: flowers that are not able to pollinate themselves. This is because the stamens or pistils do not mature together. Protandri, i.e. if the stamens cook earlier than the pistil. Protogeny, i.e. if the pistil cooks before the stamens.

Fertilization (fertilization), which is the process of fusion of male gametes (sperm) with female gametes (ovums).

After pollination, sperm move towards the egg through the pollen reed, then the fusion of the egg nucleus and sperm nucleus occurs in the ovule. Ovula is a sporophyte structure containing female megasporangium and gametophyte. Fertilization between male and female gametes will produce embryos (institutions).

Based on that event, seed plants are also called embryophyta siphonogama, which are plants that have embryos and their mating takes place through the formation of a feather. Embryos in seed plants are bipolar (dwipolar), because at one pole they will grow and develop to form stems and leaves, while other poles form a root system.

There are 2 types of fertilization in seed plants:

Single fertilization (fertilization that occurs once fertilization), namely the fusion of male gametes and female gametes that produce embryos. Occurs in Gymnosperms.

Dual fertilization (fertilization that occurs twice fertilization), namely:

fusion of sperm nucleus> <ovum, producing zygot -> embryo.

fusion of sperm nuclei> <secondary institutions, producing endosperm (for food reserves). Occurs in Angiosperms.

Vegetative Reproduction

namely the way of reproduction without going through marriage (fertilization) male and female gametes. The nature of vegetative reproduction is to produce offspring that are identical (the same nature) as the parent.

Vegetative reproduction can occur by:

Natural, the way of propagation carried out by plant vegetative organs without human assistance. Vegetative organisms that play a role include:

Rhizoma (rhizome / root stay), the stem that runs horizontally in the soil resembles a root. For example: flower beads, turmeric, ginger, reeds.

Stolon (geragih), the stem that spreads over the ground. For example: strawberries (strawberries), horse leg leaves (Centela asiatica).

Lapis Bulbs (Bulbus), which are short stems surrounded by layers of leaves. For example: onion (Allium cepa).

Tubers stem, the stem that swells in the ground. For example: sweet potatoes, potatoes.

Buds, which are parts of the stem that will have buds. For example: bamboo, coconut, and so on.

Leaves, which are the edges of leaves that have meristem tissue. For example: Duck Cocor.

Cormus, which is the base of an enlarged stem and has several buds. For example: flower beads, gladiolus.

Artificial, which is a way of propagation carried out by plants with human assistance.

Kind of artificial vegetative reproduction:

Transplant

Sticking (grafting)

Connect

Swipe

Get down

Plant tissue isolation method

Tissue culture is an effort to propagate plants by utilizing the nature of TOTIPOTENSION. Totipotency is the ability of some plant cells to grow into new individuals.

Spermatophyta Classification

Spermatophyta plants are divided into 2 groups (sub devisio), namely:

Gymnosperms (Open Seeded Plants)

It is called an open seed because the seeds are not covered by fruit flesh. Generally has a thick leaf structure, many branches, leaf caps form conifers / cones. Don't have real interest yet. Generative reproduction occurs once fertilization (single fertilization) which produces zygot. The time between pollination and fertilization lasts relatively long.

Gymnosperms can be divided into several groups, namely:

Cycadophyta / Cycadales , unbranched stems, compound leaves arranged as a canopy in the tree tops. Example: Cycas rumpii (hajj fern).

Pinophyta / Coniferales , has a conical leaf hood (conifer), a reproductive tool in the form of strobilus (in males and females), needle-shaped leaves. Example: Aghatis alba (resin), Cupressus sp, Araucaria sp, Juniperus sp, Pinus merkusii.

Gnetophyta / Gnetales , stems have many branches, single leaves facing, unisexual flowers. For example: Gnetum gnemon (mlinjo).

Ginkophyta , a tree with short shoots, peg / fan shaped leaves and leaf stem. Is a native plant in China.

Angiosperms (Covered seed plants)

Called closed seeds because the seeds are wrapped in fruit flesh. Having a reproductive tool in the form of a perfect flower (benangsari, pistil, ovum, ovule, crown, petals, and stems). Generative reproduction undergoes fertilization twice (double fertilization) which produces zygot (generative nucleus / sperm fertilization with ova) and endosperm (generative nucleus / sperm fertilization with secondary bodies).

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Angiosperms can be divided into 2 classes, namely:

Monokotiledonae class (single-seeded seeds)

Generally in the form of herbaceous annuals or a year, has a single cotyledon / one piece, the stem is not branched / branched a little and does not have cambium, transport bundles are arranged irregularly (scattered), closed collateral type, curved leaf bones / parallel, have root fibers, flowers has parts with multiples of 3, irregular flower shapes, and inconspicuous colors.

Consists of several families:

Liliaceae, For example: Lilium sp (lilia), Alium cepa (large onion), Alium sativum (garlic), Alium ascolonicum (onion).

Palmae (palm family), For example: Cocos nucifera (coconut), Phoenix sp (date)

Graminae (family of grasses), For example: Oryza sativa (rice), Zea mays (Corn), grass, bamboo, and so on.

Orchidaceae (orchid family), For example: Cattleya sp, Dendrobium sp, Arundina sp, Epidendrum sp, Vanilia planifolia (vanilla).

Class Dikotiledonae (Seed two pieces)

Generally in the form of perennial plants (woody), having double cotyledons / two pieces, generally branching stems, having cambium, transporting files arranged regularly (side by side), open collateral type, leaf bones pinching / pinning, having taproots, flowers having parts with multiples of 4 or 5, regular flower shape, and generally have a striking color.

Consists of several families, namely:

Caryophyllaceae, For example: Dianthus chinensis.

Magnoliaceae, For example: Magnolia grandiflora (white cempaka).

Rosaseae, For example: Rosa hybrida (maqar flower)

Leguminoceae, For example: Leucena glauca (lamtoro), Parkia specinosa (petai), Tamarindus indica (acid).

Malvaceae, For example: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibiscus), Glossipium obtusifolium (cotton).

Umbelliferae, For example: Centella asiatica (taro)

Solanaceae, For example: Solanum tuberosum (potatoes), Orthosiphon grandiflorus (cat's kumisal).

Compositae, For example: Ageratum sp (babandotan), Helianthus annus (sunflower), Nicotiana tabaccum (tmebakau), Capsicum sp (chilli), Lycopersicum esculentum (tomatoes), and so on.

The role of Spermatophyta

Food sources (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins)

Source of beverage ingredients (ginger, tea, coffee)

Source of clothing (hemp, cotton)

Building material sources (Mahogany, teak, meranti)

Sources of industrial materials (pine, rubber)

Utilization of spermatophyte

As a staple food, for example wheat, corn, rice, and sago.

Used as vegetables, for example beans, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots and potatoes.

As a basic material for clothing, for example hemp and cotton.

For building materials, for example, such as teak, meranti, and there rivet.

As medicines, for example noni, fennel, and cat's whiskers.

There also are used for cosmetics.

REFERENCES

Falahuddin, Irham.dkk.2014. Basic Biology. Palembang: Excellent Publication Palembang

Campbell, Neil A. & Jane B. Reece.2008. Biology. Jakarta: Erlangga

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